Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Those cellular dysregulations all contribute to promote muscle apoptosis. Supporting Information Filename Description acelsupSupinfo. Adhihetty, P. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology , , C — C Crossref PubMed Google Scholar. Volume 18 , Issue 5 October e Figures References Related Information.
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Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in AD, while calbindin-containing neighboring neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease Riascos et al. Another study reported that over-expression of calbindin in presenilin 1 mutant neurons was sufficient to prevent apoptosis Guo et al.
These findings are consistent with earlier findings suggesting that calbindin-positive hippocampal neurons are more resistant against oxidative stress Mattson et al. More work in this direction would greatly enhance our ability to selectively intervene in order to modulate the vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations. The idea that mitochondria could be directly involved in the pathogenesis of PD comes from the early accidental observation that 1-methylphenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MPTP , an inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, causes Parkinson-like symptoms Langston and Ballard, Later on, it was also demonstrated that DA neurons from PD patients show massive accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mtDNA deletions that impair the function of the respiratory chain complexes Exner et al.
Some clues as to the selective vulnerability of this population arise from the fact that DA neurons of the substantia nigra display unusual physiological properties. First, unlike most other neurons in the brain, they are autonomously active, generating regular action potentials in the absence of synaptic input Grace and Bunney, This pacemaking activity is thought to maintain physiological levels of dopamine in regions they innervate, particularly the striatum Romo and Schultz, Second, DA neurons of the substantia nigra display an elaborate axonal network Matsuda et al.
As a result, the mitochondrial density in their somatic and dendritic regions is very low compared to other neuronal types Liang et al. At least 13 gene loci and 9 genes have been linked to both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of PD Lesage and Brice, Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described for mutants of all these genes Lesage and Brice, DJ-1 is a multitask protein that, in addition to its main role as an antioxidant Taira et al.
As these results were obtained in vitro using non-neuronal cell lines, their relevance to DA neuron physiology and pathology remains to be examined. However, consistently, numerous reports showed that PINK1-deficient cells have impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced sensitivity to the toxic effects of mitochondrial complex I inhibitors Wood-Kaczmar et al.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potentialconflict of interest. Akundi, R. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.
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- Cellular Mechanism for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis - 1st Edition.
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