Guide The March of Time: Evolving Conceptions of Time in the Light of Scientific Discoveries

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The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Sign in. Display statistics. Publication date Author Weinert, Friedel. Keyword Time ; Scientific discoveries ; Conceptions ; History of time ; Cosmology and regularity ; Stasis and flux ; Symmetry and asymmetry ; Nature of time.

Peer-Reviewed Yes. For this reason, the pulse visually appears to be larger. However, the pulse width, when quantitatively measured via the cross-sectional full width at half maximum, was comparable to that in the rest of the frames. The performance of the streak camera, and not the principle of the technique, hinders further increases in frame rate, as well as other important characteristics, such as the spatial resolution and spectral range.

A precise synchronization is therefore necessary to capture transient events within the time window. A new streak tube design and customized optical components would enable future implementations of a lossless-encoding scheme 24 , which is anticipated to improve the spatial and temporal resolutions in reconstructed images. In addition, the implementations of dual sweep-electrode pairs 31 and an ultra-large-format camera 32 are expected to largely increase the duty cycle with the possibility of even realizing continuous streaming.

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Single-shot real-time imaging of temporal focusing is expected to immediately benefit the study of nonlinear light—matter interactions. For example, in femtosecond laser 3D micromachining using transparent media e. Thus far, the underlying mechanism for this nonreciprocal writing effect remains elusive.

Recent theoretical investigations have indicated a close relation to the plasma dynamics controlled by the tilted pulse front of the temporal focusing pulses The T-CUP system can substitute for the low-speed cameras that are currently employed in imaging the laser—glass interaction The measured spatiotemporal profiles will be analyzed using the established models 36 to investigate how the pulse front tilt and laser pulse energy affect the transient structure, dispersion properties, and spatial density of the induced plasma.

The advantages of single-shot and ultrafast imaging will also pave the way for studying the plasma dynamics generated at microscopically heterogeneous locations e. Single-shot real-time imaging of temporal focusing by T-CUP also opens up new routes for spatiotemporal characterization of optical waveforms. Currently, temporal microscopes are often deployed as ultrafast all-optical oscilloscopes 2 to passively analyze optical waveforms with few picosecond temporal resolution 37 at a specific spatial point.

The resolution quantification and imaging experiments in our work have demonstrated that T-CUP, while achieving a comparable temporal resolution, outperforms these oscilloscopes by adding a passive two-spatial-dimensional imaging ability. Thus the large parallel characterization of T-CUP could enable simultaneous ultrafast optical signal processing at multiple wavelengths for telecommunication In metrology, a spatiotemporal microscope developed from T-CUP could be well suited for characterizing spatiotemporally complex ultrashort pulses In many time-resolved high-field laser experiments, the laser systems employed usually have low repetition rates.

Therefore, single-shot characterization powered by T-CUP is attractive especially for fast and precise alignment of the setup 40 and for imaging samples that are difficult to be repeatedly delivered In biomedicine, T-CUP holds promise for in vivo tissue imaging. Living biological tissue is an example of dynamic scattering media with a millisecond-level speckle decorrelation time Thus far, owing to the limited speed of wavefront characterization in existing methods, spatiotemporal focusing beyond the optical diffusion limit has only been realized with static scattering media 43 , In contrast, T-CUP demonstrates single-shot femtosecond imaging of transient light patterns in a dynamic scattering medium Fig.

Evolving Conceptions of Time in the Light of Scientific Discoveries

By integrating T-CUP with interferometry, it is possible to examine the scattered electric field of a broadband beam, which would assist in the design of phase conjugation of spatiotemporal focusing in living biological tissue. Therefore, our work, as an important step in imaging instrumentation, will open up new routes toward deep-tissue wide-field two-photon microscopy, photodynamic therapy, and optogenetics.

By improving the frame rate by two orders of magnitude compared with the previous state-of-the-art 23 , T-CUP demonstrated that the ever-lasting pursuit of a higher frame rate is far from ending. As the only detection solution thus far available for passively probing dynamic self-luminescent events at femtosecond timescales in real time, T-CUP was used to reveal spatiotemporal details of transient scattering events that were inaccessible using previous systems.

The compressed-sensing-augmented projection extended the application of the Radon transformation to probing spatiotemporal datacubes.

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This general scheme can be potentially implemented in other imaging modalities, such as tomographic phase microscopy 45 and time-of-flight volumography With continuous improvement in streak camera technologies 48 , future development may enable a 1 quadrillion fps 10 15 fps frame rate with a wider imaging spectral range, allowing direct visualization and exploration of irreversible chemical reactions 49 and nanostructure dynamics We first derive the expression for the data acquisition of T-CUP in a continuous model.

For data acquisition, T-CUP records the intensity distribution of the dynamic scene, I x, y, t , in two projected views Supplementary Fig.

The first view, termed the time-unsheared view, directly records the dynamic scene with an external CCD camera Fig. This recording process is expressed as. The second view, termed the time-sheared view, records the projected view of the spatiotemporal scene from an oblique angle Supplementary Fig. Specifically, the dynamic scene is first spatially encoded by a pseudo-random binary mask, followed by femtosecond shearing along one spatial axis by a time-varying voltage applied to a pair of sweep electrodes before the scene is finally spatiotemporally integrated on an internal CCD camera in the streak camera.

Mathematically, the optical energy measured by the internal CCD camera, E s , is related to I x, y, t by. For image reconstruction, we discretized Eqs. Given the known measurement matrix and leveraging the intrinsic sparsity in the dynamic scene, we estimate that the datacube for the transient scene by solving the inverse problem of Eq.

Following the intermediate image, a beam splitter sends the incident light in two directions. The transmitted beam is passed onto a DMD Texas Instruments, LightCrafter by a 4 f imaging system with a unit magnification ratio. A pseudo-random binary pattern is displayed on the DMD to encode the input image. After being reflected by the beam splitter, the spatially encoded dynamic scene is projected onto the entrance port of a femtosecond streak camera Hamamatsu, C Inside the streak camera, the spatially encoded dynamic scene is first relayed to a photocathode that generates a number of photoelectrons proportional to the light intensity distribution.

To temporally shear the spatially encoded dynamic scene, a sweep voltage deflects the photoelectrons to different vertical positions according to their time of flight. The deflected photoelectrons are multiplied by a micro-channel plate and then converted back into light by a phosphor screen. With two-view recording, the light throughput for the T-CUP system is Kolner, B. Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging. IEEE J. Foster, M. Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope. Nature , 81—84 Patera, G.

Quantum temporal imaging: application of a time lens to quantum optics. Zhu, G. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses. Express 13 , — Oron, D. Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy. Papagiakoumou, E. Functional patterned multiphoton excitation deep inside scattering tissue. Photonics 7 , — Salem, R. Application of space—time duality to ultrahigh-speed optical signal processing. Photonics 5 , — Goda, K.

  • Single-shot real-time femtosecond imaging of temporal focusing?
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  • Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements. Scanless two-photon excitation of channelrhodopsin Methods 7 , — Katz, O. Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media. Beresna, M. Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials. Photonics 6 , — Jing, C. Characteristics and applications of spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses. Stockbridge, C. Focusing through dynamic scattering media. Express 20 , — Kammel, R. Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing.

    Light Sci. Mikami, H. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods. Nanophotonics 5 , 98— Schaffer, C. Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds.

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    Express 10 , — Velten, A. Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging. Li, Z. Single-shot tomographic movies of evolving light-velocity objects. Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena. Nature , — Nakagawa, K.

    Photonics 8 , — Ehn, A. FRAME: femtosecond videography for atomic and molecular dynamics. Kubota, T. Moving picture recording and observation of three-dimensional image of femtosecond light pulse propagation. Express 15 , — Gao, L. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second. Nature , 74—77 Liang, J.

    Single-shot real-time video recording of a photonic Mach cone induced by a scattered light pulse. Encrypted three-dimensional dynamic imaging using snapshot time-of-flight compressed ultrafast photography. The restricted isometry property and its implications for compressed sensing. Bor, Z. Femtosecond pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion. Hebling, J. Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion.

    Mermillod-Blondin, A. Time-resolved imaging of laser-induced refractive index changes in transparent media. Sun, Q. Measurement of the collision time of dense electronic plasma induced by a femtosecond laser in fused silica. Lumpkin, A. First dual-sweep streak camera measurements of a photoelectric injector drive laser. Methods Phys. A , — Brady, D. Multiscale gigapixel photography.

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    • Vitek, D. Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials. Express 18 , — Wang, Z. Time-resolved shadowgraphs of transient plasma induced by spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica glass. Wang, X. High-frame-rate observation of single femtosecond laser pulse propagation in fused silica using an echelon and optical polarigraphy technique.

      Li, G. Second harmonic generation in centrosymmetric gas with spatiotemporally focused intense femtosecond laser pulses. Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope. Photonics 3 , — Ultrafast optical signal processing based upon space-time dualities. Light Technol. Weiner, A. Durfee, C. Breakthroughs in photonics spatiotemporal focusing: advances and applications.

      Poulin, P. Irreversible organic crystalline chemistry monitored in real time. Science , — Gross, M. Heterodyne detection of multiply scattered monochromatic light with a multipixel detector. Mosk, A. Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media. McCabe, D.

      Spatio-temporal focusing of an ultrafast pulse through a multiply scattering medium. Choi, W. Tomographic phase microscopy. Methods 4 , — Satat, G. Locating and classifying fluorescent tags behind turbid layers using time-resolved inversion. Horng, J. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics.